Respiratory system notes

Pulmonary or cystic fibrosis def produces thickened mucus secretions which block the airways and scar tissue often develops in place of the normal elastic stroma. The pleura is a serous membrane which folds back onto itself to form a two-layered membrane structure.

Cellular respiration Respiratory system notes the includes the metabolic pathways which utilize oxygen and produce carbon dioxide, which will not be included in this unit. Volume of a single breath, usually at rest. The parietal pleura is highly sensitive to pain, while the visceral pleura is not, due to its lack of sensory innervation.

The pressure oscillates around zero or atmospheric pressure. Another important process involves the movement of blood by the circulatory system. Since these muscles act only in forced expiration the VRG is only active then, while the DRG acts in both quiet and forced respiration.

The apneustic center its function is established but its location is not increases the depth and reduces the rate by prolonging inspirations.

Large bronchioles lead to the terminal bronchioles which have simple cuboidal epithelium. Air passes through the bronchi into the bronchioles of the lungs. The effect of pH on the Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve. The Respiratory system notes zone volume is about ml and of each breath this amount does not extend into the respiratory zone.

This occurs because the closely apposed chest wall transmits pressures to the visceral pleural surface and hence to the lung itself. This ties directly to the respiratory system bulletin board activity and to the first question on the respiratory system model worksheet, creating a repetitive review of the structures of the respiratory system.

The membraneous portion of the trachea on the posterior side contains the majority of the trachealis muscle and is flexible to accommodate the esophagus nestled immediately behind the trachea. The pleural cavity transmits movements of the chest wall to the lungs, particularly during heavy breathing.

The mixture of gases under consideration is the air and Table Goblet cells continue through the mucosa providing continued mucus secretion. Diffusion results from a concentration gradient which is expressed for gases as the difference in partial pressures.

Pleural cavity contains serous fluid to lubricate surfaces during breathing. External respiration - the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood. One bronchus connects to each lung. The result of lowered pO2, whether as a result of altitude or hypoxic stress is that more oxygen is unloaded to the tissues from the oxygen reservoir.

Exploring Models Wrap up 5 minutes At the end of class I have the students clean up their areas and I ask a group to demonstrate their working model for the rest of the class.

The pressure varies from about -4 mmHg at the end of expiration, to -8 mmHg and the end of inspiration. The intrapleural pressure is always negative compared to the atmosphere. The cilia of this mucosa beat upward to carry particulates up and out into the esophagus.

This canal allows equalization of pressure between the atmosphere and the middle ear. Then the carbon dioxide goes back up the respiratory system to leave the body.

Chapter 16 – The Respiratory System

Air enters the body either by the mouth or by the nose. It results in a larger volume in the lungs but impaired gas transport and reduced ability to expire the trapped air.

This produces the levels seen in oxygenated blood in the body. The Conducting Zone - area which conducts air into the lungs. Expansion is also facilitated by the action of surfactant in preventing the collapse of the alveoli.

Abdominal wall muscles internal and external obliques, rectus abdominus and transverses abdominus can help squeeze out more air. It contains three potential spaces lined with mesothelium: The pons sends stimuli to the medulla to regulate the rate and depth.

These basement membranes are composed of a basal lamina with collagen fibers and a small amount of elastic tissue. This produces large thick-walled chambers replacing the normal small thin-walled alveoli.

The trachea branches into the primary bronchi See Figure The space between these layers, sometimes called the pleural space or cavity, is really only a potential space, normally just the layer of serous fluid secreted by the membranes.

Respiratory bronchioles begin this zone, leading to alveolar ducts and then alveolar sacs. Examples are emphysema defwhich increases compliance and decreases elasticity, and fibrosis defwhich reduces both.

This happens because CO2 levels become permanently elevated and the CO2 receptors cease responding.The Respiratory System: Respiration involves several components: Ventilation - the exchange of respiratory gases (O 2 and CO 2) between the atmosphere and the lungs.

This involves gas pressures and muscle contractions. External respiration - the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood. Notes over the respiratory system with powerpoint presentation and images for labeling.

The Respiratory System

Document is intended for students of anatomy. APII Notes Home Page. Respiratory Anatomy Study Guide. Histology. Respiratory Anatomy Lab Assignment Respiratory System: Anatomy & Histology.

Conducting Zone. No gas exchange. Respiratory Zone. Gas exchange. I). Conducting zone: Respiratory Zone: A). Respiratory Bronchioles.

Branch off of terminal bronchioles. RespiratorySSystem (Chapter 23) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk CountyuCommunityoCollege Ph.D. 2 SCCC BIO Chapter 23 Lecture Notes. Rhinitis = inßammation of nasal mucosa!" mucus production. Lower Respiratory System 4.

Larynx (voice box). Human Anatomy and Physiology: Respiratory System; Ziser Lecture Notes, 1 The Respiratory System Respiratory system functions mainly as gas exchange system for O 2 andCO 2!

cellular respiration (energy production) closely tied to circulatory system General Functions of Respiratory System: 1. O 2 and CO 2 exchange between blood and air 2. Summary Notes All About The Respiratory System Including: Functions, Zones, Volumes And Capacities, O2 & Co2 Transport, Breathing Mechanics.

Respiratory system notes
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